It is unknown whether changes in bladder function due to urethral obstruction follow a specific sequence. To answer this, we adapted a small animal model to allow repeated complete pressure-flow studies, enabling individual follow-up of changes in bladder function on urethral obstruction. Obstruction was induced in guinea pigs by placing a silver ring around the urethra. Urodynamic studies were repeated under anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine. Bladders were filled and bladder pressure measured through a single suprapubic catheter. Urine flow rate was measured using an ultrasound probe around the penis. Accurate measurements of bladder pressure and urine flow rates were obtained at 1-week intervals for 11 weeks in individual guinea pigs. In the control animals, the urodynamic parameters did not show significant changes. In the obstructed group, urethral resistance (P(low,ave)) increased from 20 to 35 cm H(2)O after 4 weeks and remained at that level. The maximum flow rate (Q(max)) increased from 0.17 to 0.24 mL/s after 2 to 3 weeks. After this peak, it gradually decreased to lower than the starting value after 10 to 11 weeks. The pressure at maximum flow rate (p(Qmax)) increased from 24 to 47 cm H(2)O after 6 to 7 weeks and thereafter declined. During weeks 1 through 4 of obstruction, unstable contractions were seen. All animals followed a similar sequence of patterns but at variable rates. Our animal model allows complete urodynamic follow-up of individual animals with urethral obstruction. We observed a specific sequence of changes in urodynamic patterns and parameters of bladder function

*Urodynamics, Animals, Follow-Up Studies, Guinea Pigs, Male, Muscle Contraction, Pressure, Urethral Obstruction/*physiopathology, Urinary Bladder/physiopathology, Urination/physiology, Urine/physiology,
Neurourology and Urodynamics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Wolffenbuttel, K.P, Kok, D.J, Minekus, J, van Koeveringe, G.A, van Mastrigt, R, & Nijman, R.J.M. (2001). Urodynamic follow-up of experimental urethral obstruction in individual guinea pigs. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 20(6), 699–713. doi:10.1002/nau.1021