To diagnose bladder outlet obstruction in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), it is necessary to measure the bladder pressure via a transurethral (or suprapubic) catheter. This procedure incurs some risk of urinary tract infection and urethral trauma and is sometimes painful to the patient. We developed an external condom catheter to measure non-invasively the bladder pressure and developed a strategy to classify bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) based on this measurement. Seventy-five patients with a wide range of urological diagnoses underwent a pressure-flow study followed by a non-invasive study. We tested five different strategies to classify the patients using the provisional International Continence Society (ICS) method for definition of obstruction as the gold standard. Leakage of the external catheter occurred in eight (40%) of the first 20 tested patients. In the remaining 55 patients, only five (9%) of the measurements failed because of leakage. Of the 75 patients, 56 were successfully tested non-invasively. According to the ICS nomogram, the PFS showed that 22 of these patients were non-obstructed, 12 patients were equivocal, and 22 patients were obstructed. Ten of these 56 patients strained, and we found that the relatively high abdominal pressures in these patients were not reflected in the externally measured bladder pressure. Of the remaining 46 patients, 12 of 13 non-obstructed patients and 30 of 33 combined equivocal and obstructed patients could be correctly classified. We developed a simple, non-invasive classification strategy to identify BOO in those male patients who did not strain during voiding

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Neurourology and Urodynamics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Pel, J., Bosch, R., Blom, J., Lycklama à Nijeholt, G., & van Mastrigt, R. (2002). Development of a non-invasive strategy to classify bladder outlet obstruction in male patients with LUTS. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 21(2), 117–125. doi:10.1002/nau.10046