PURPOSE: Currently bladder outlet obstruction in males is defined by the provisional International Continence Society nomogram which is partly based on expert opinion and partly on measurements before and after transurethral prostate resection. Recently there has been some interest in the development of a similar nomogram for females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the possibility of defining bladder outlet obstruction based on a sign that it causes, namely post-void residual urine. RESULTS: The probability of relative post-void residual urine exceeding 20% of bladder capacity was modeled in males and females using 1 parameter, that is URA/w20 or the ratio of the obstruction parameter urethral resistance factor (URA)-to-the bladder contractility parameter Watts factor at 20% (w20). URA/w20 represents relative bladder outlet resistance or bladder outlet resistance normalized to bladder contractility. Above a threshold of URA/w20 = 6.8 in females and 8.2 in males a relative post-void residual exceeding 20% was noted in 90% of measurements. These thresholds may be used to define relative obstruction. The provisional International Continence Society nomogram for obstruction in males was transformed into an identical nomogram for females by equating the probabilities of post-void residual urine in each gender. The latter differed from that in men, in that the lines demarcating the zones were horizontal or flow rate independent but the intercepts were approximately the same at 20 and 40 cm. water. CONCLUSIONS: Instead of defining obstruction as an absolute level of bladder outlet resistance we suggest that it is better to define it relatively, that is as a level of bladder outlet resistance that depends on bladder contractility

Female, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Probability, Reference Values, Sex Factors, Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/*diagnosis/etiology/physiopathology, Urination Disorders/diagnosis/etiology/physiopathology, Urodynamics/physiology
dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)64681-2, hdl.handle.net/1765/14366
The Journal of Urology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kranse, R, & van Mastrigt, R. (2002). Relative bladder outlet obstruction. The Journal of Urology, 565–570. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)64681-2