Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is nowadays most frequently applied in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It combines chemoradiotherapy with immunotherapy, also known as the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. While it effectively reduces the relapse rate in patients, transplanted in remission, non-relapse mortality (NRM) may counterbalance that beneficial effect. As a result, alloSCT is generally associated with a modest gain in overall survival. Therefore, alloSCT may especially be applied in patients with a relatively high risk of relapse and a relatively low risk of NRM. Here, we discuss how recent findings that have identified and validated specific prognostic factors may affect our decision making for which category of AML-patients alloSCT may especially be indicated.

Acute myeloid leukemia, Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Alternative donors, CCAAT enhancer binding protein, Non-relapse mortality, acute granulocytic leukemia, allogeneic stem cell transplantation, amsacrine, antileukemic agent, article, busulfan, cancer chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, cancer mortality, cancer radiotherapy, cancer survival, cord blood stem cell transplantation, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, donor, fludarabine, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gene mutation, graft versus leukemia effect, human, leukemia remission, melphalan, nucleophosmin, priority journal, reduced intensity conditioning, relapse, thiotepa,
Blood Reviews
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Lodewyck, T, & Cornelissen, J.J. (2008). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia: a risk-adapted approach. Blood Reviews, 22(6), 293–302. doi:10.1016/j.blre.2008.03.008