Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is nowadays most frequently applied in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It combines chemoradiotherapy with immunotherapy, also known as the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. While it effectively reduces the relapse rate in patients, transplanted in remission, non-relapse mortality (NRM) may counterbalance that beneficial effect. As a result, alloSCT is generally associated with a modest gain in overall survival. Therefore, alloSCT may especially be applied in patients with a relatively high risk of relapse and a relatively low risk of NRM. Here, we discuss how recent findings that have identified and validated specific prognostic factors may affect our decision making for which category of AML-patients alloSCT may especially be indicated.

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Blood Reviews
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Lodewyck, T., & Cornelissen, J. (2008). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia: a risk-adapted approach. Blood Reviews, 22(6), 293–302. doi:10.1016/j.blre.2008.03.008