Industrial Ecology (IE) is a known concept worldwide; however, its dissemination is not an easy process. Industrial routines are embedded in unsustainable practices that are difficult to change. The complexity and uncertainties of new concepts are often approached with ignorance and misperception. Nevertheless, the integration of economic, environmental and social dimensions in industrial activities is increasingly perceived as a necessary condition for a sustainable society. The paper reflects on the theories of embeddedness, capabilities and transformation to practical experiences of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex (HIC).

HSF, Happy Shrimp Farm, Rotterdam harbour and industry area, capabilities, embeddedness, environmental innovations, industrial ecology, social sciences, sustainability, sustainable development, transformation, waste heat
Progress in Industrial Ecology: an international journal
Department of Public Administration

Baas, L.W, & Huisingh, D. (2009). The synergistic role of embeddedness and capabilities in industrial symbiosis: illustration based upon 12 years of experiences in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex. Progress in Industrial Ecology: an international journal, 399–421. Retrieved from