The principles of orthopaedic distraction osteogenesis (DO) have been successfully applied to the craniofacial skeleton, but the latency time, rate and rhythm of distraction, and length of the consolidation period that are optimal for long-bone distraction may be suboptimal for craniofacial DO. The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for optimal distraction parameters in animal experimental research on craniofacial DO. The data used were from studies, added to the PubMed database between 1 January 1973 and 1 January 2007, on the outcome of DO resulting from variations in a single distraction parameter while standardizing the other distraction parameters. Although experimental animal group sizes were rather small, especially in those studies that used large animals, and both skeletally mature and immature animals were used, the (in most cases quantitative) data provided useful information on the optimal parameters in craniofacial DO. A latency period may not be necessary at all. Distraction should be performed at a rate of 1mm/day (this may be halved when small animals such as rats are used) preferably with a continuous rhythm, followed by a consolidation period of 6-8 weeks. These recommendations can be used as basic guidelines for further animal experimental studies on craniofacial DO.

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International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Djasim, U., Wolvius, E., van Neck, H., Weinans, H., & van der Wal, K. (2007). Recommendations for optimal distraction protocols for various animal models on the basis of a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Vol. 36, pp. 877–883). doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.05.012