Heart failure is a clinical syndrome, which develops as a result of impaired function of the heart. The response of the body to impaired cardiac function includes cardiac and extra cardiac factors, like cardiac remodeling, structural and functional changes in peripheral skeletal muscle and neurohumoral activation. The latter involves increased levels of catecholamines, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, release of ANP, aldosterone and vasopressin and plays a central role in regulating constriction of the peripheral circulation and causes structural and functional changes in the vascular waH, modulation of water and salt retention and sympathetic tone, thus influencing hemodynamic changes. The activated neurohonnones have both vasodilating and vasoconstrictive action and growth modulating and promoting actions.

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M.L. Simoons (Maarten)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van der Ent, M. (1998, October 7). Asymptomatic LV Dysfunction and Heart Failure: Neurohumeral and metabolic aspects of Pharmacological intervention. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/17139