To test whether global smoking attitudes may be a driving factor in smoking behavior, Experiment 1 assessed smoking associations with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Although smokers’ attitudes (n = 24) were less negative than those of non-smokers (n = 24) both displayed negative associations with smoking. To test whether these findings may be an artifact of measurement setting and/or the indirect measure that was used, Experiment 2 assessed attitudes in a smoking (n=20) or a non-smoking setting (n = 20) using the IAT and an Affective Simon Task. In both settings negative attitudes emerged, suggesting that global (implicit) attitudes may be a moderating rather than a driving factor in smoking behavior.

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Addictive Behaviors
Department of Psychology

Huijding, J, de Jong, P.J, Wiers, R.W, & Verkooijen, K. (2005). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking in a smoking and a nonsmoking setting. Addictive Behaviors, 1–25. Retrieved from