impact on families, schools, and communities, and predict delinquency and substance abuse in adulthood (e.g., Fergusson et al 1994; Frick et al 1993; Loeber 1982; Moffitt et al 1996, 2002; Nagin and Tremblay 1999; Robbins 1966). Therefore, research aimed at identifying early risk factors and at mechanisms that determine change in symptoms across time is needed (Côté et al 2002; Deater-Deckard et al 1998; Hinshaw 2002; Lahey et al 2002; Loeber et al 1995; Nagin and Tremblay 1999). Although it is clear that disruptive behaviors are influenced by familial, situational, and societal factors, increasing evidence underscores the importance of genetic and other biological processes (Brunner et al 1993; Caspi et al 2002; Coccaro et al 1996; Kruesi et al 1992). Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), two major physiological stress response systems, have often been associated with disruptive behavior problems in children and adolescents (e.g. Vanyukov et al 1993; Mc Burnett et al 2000; Pajer et al 2001; Shoal et al 2003; Van de Wiel et al 2004; Scerbo and Kolko, 1994; Ortiz and Raine 2004; Mezzacappa et al 1997; Allen et al 2000). The introduction comprises four main components. Firstly, the different constructs of disruptive behaviors as provided by the DSM-IV (APA 1994) will be described. The two stress response systems will then be discussed. By explaining the arousal theories in the following part, the link between disruptive behaviors and the stress response systems will be clarified. Thirdly, the aims of the thesis will be formulated and the TRAILS-sample will be described. The introduction concludes with an outline of this thesis.

, ,
NWO, Sophia Foundation for Medical Research, Dutch Ministry of Justice
J. Ormel (Johan Hans) , F.C. Verhulst (Frank)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Sondeijker, F. (2006, December 6). Neuroendocrine and autonomic risk factors for disruptive behaviors in young adolescents. Retrieved from