Context: Skeletal muscle is an important target tissue for thyroid hormone (TH). It is currently unknown which genes are regulated by physiological TH levels. Objective: We examined the effects of L-thyroxine on human skeletal muscle transcriptome. Design: Microarray analysis of transcript levels was performed using skeletal muscle biopsies from patients under euthyroid and hypothyroid conditions. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital laboratory. Patients: We studied skeletal muscle obtained from 10 thyroidectomized patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma on and after 4 wk off L-thyroxine replacement. Mean Outcome Measures: Gene expression changes were measured using microarrays. Results were analyzed using dedicated statistical methods. Results: We detected 607 differentially expressed genes on L-thyroxine treatment, of which approximately 60% were positively and approximately 40% were negatively regulated. Representative genes were validated by quantitative PCR. Genes involved in energy and fuel metabolism were overrepresented among the up-regulated genes, of which a large number were newly associated with thyroid state. L-thyroxine therapy induced a large down-regulation of the primary transcripts of the noncoding microRNA pair miR-206/miR-133b. Conclusion: We demonstrated that physiological levels of TH regulate a myriad of genes in human skeletal muscle. The identification of novel putatively TH-responsive genes may provide the molecular basis of clinical effects in subjects with different TH status. The observation that TH regulates microRNAs reveals a new layer of complexity by which TH influences cellular processes.

article, clinical article, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, down regulation, energy metabolism, euthyroidism, gene control, gene expression, gene identification, genetic analysis, genetic transcription, goiter, hormone substitution, human, microRNA, microarray analysis, muscle biopsy, priority journal, skeletal muscle, thyroid carcinoma, thyroid hormone, thyroidectomy, thyroxine, transcriptome, treatment outcome, validation study,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Visser, W.E, Heemstra, K.A, Swagemakers, S.M.A, Ozgur, Z, Corssmit, E.P, Burggraaf, J, … Visser, T.J. (2009). Physiological thyroid hormone levels regulate numerous skeletal muscle transcripts. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(9), 3487–3496. doi:10.1210/jc.2009-0782