To Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), the famous French surgeon, credit is given for first recognizing a fracture of the femoral neck. A second step into understanding the pathology of the broken hip was taken by Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841), as he was the first to underline the importance of the vascularization of the femoral head, describing what is now known as avascular necrosis, Until the 1930's, methods of treatment for hip fractures were mainly conservative. This changed when Smith-Peterson of Boston developed a special nail that could be inserted surgically, thus keeping fracture fragments together '. Surgical results improved mainly by the brilliant work of Jolm Charnley (1911-1982) in England '. His work was followed by the development of numerous devices up to the point where the total joint, including the socket, could be replaced.