The airways can be divided in the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx. and the lower respiratory tract. consisting of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This structure provides an enormous surface area where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. the function of the lungs, can take place. Respiratory diseases may affect onc or more of the different parts of the airways. For example, emphysema is characterized by a decreased number of alveoli which also have a reduced elasticity. On the other hand, asthma, the main focus of this thesis, is considered to be a disease affecting predominantly the bronchi and bronchioli.

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Nederlands Astmafonds
R. Benner (Robbert) , H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van der Velden, V. (1998, June 24). Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Peptidases: Modulation by cytokincs and glucocorticoids ill vitro and in asthma. Retrieved from