Intravascular ultrasound (rvUS) is a new imaging mOdality providing real-time, crosssectional, high-resolution images of the arterial lumen and vessel wall. In contrast to conventional x-ray angiography that only displays silhouette views of the vessel lumen, IVUS imaging permits visualization of lesion morphology and accurate measurements of arterial cross-sectional dimensions in patients. These unique capabilities have led to many important clinical applications including quantitative assessment of the severity, restenosis, progression of atherosclerosis, selection and guidance of catheterbased therapeutic procedures and short- and long-term evaluation of the outcome of an intravascular intervention. Like the progress of other medial imaging modalities, the advent of IVUS techniques has brought in new challenges in the field of signal and image processing. Quantitative analysis of IVUS images requires the identification of arterial structures such as the lumen and plaque within an image. Manual contour tracing is well known to be time consuming and subjective. Development of an automated contour detection method may improve the reproducibility of quantitative IVUS and avoid a tedious manual procedure. Computerized three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of an IVUS image series may extend the tomographic data to a more powerful volumetric assessment of the vessel segment. Obviously, this could not be achieved without the advance of 3D image processing techniques. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that processing of the original radio frequency (RF) echo signals provides an efficient means to improve the IVUS image quality as well as a new approach to extract volumetric flow information. The goals of the studies reported in this thesis are therefore directed toward development of video image and RF signal processing techniques for image enhancement, automated contour detection, 3D reconstruction and flow imaging. In this chapter several IVUS scanning mechanisms and some background information about ultrasonic imaging are briefly introduced. The principles of different video-based contour detection approaches and examples of contour detection in echocardiograms are discussed. Subsequently, applications of RF analysis in IVUS images are reviewed, followed by the scope of this thesis in the final part.

Netherlands Heart Foundation, Intemniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), Cardialysis B.V., EndoSonics Europe B.V., TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH
N. Bom (Klaas) , A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton) , J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Li, W. (1997, June 27). Image and Signal Processing in Intravascular Ultrasound. Retrieved from