The ankyrin repeat is a protein module with high affinity for other ankyrin repeats based on strong Van der Waals forces. The resulting dimerization is unusually resistant to both mechanical forces and alkanization, making this module exceedingly useful for meeting the extraordinary demands of muscle physiology. Many aspects of muscle function are controlled by the superfamily ankyrin repeat domain containing proteins, including structural fixation of the contractile apparatus to the muscle membrane by ankyrins, the archetypical member of the family. Additionally, other ankyrin repeat domain containing proteins critically control the various differentiation steps during muscle development, with Notch and developmental stage-specific expression of the members of the Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box (ASB) containing family of proteins controlling compartment size and guiding the various steps of muscle specification. Also, adaptive responses in fully formed muscle require ankyrin repeat containing proteins, with Myotrophin/V-1 ankyrin repeat containing proteins controlling the induction of hypertrophic responses following excessive mechanical load, and muscle ankyrin repeat proteins (MARPs) acting as protective mechanisms of last resort following extreme demands on muscle tissue. Knowledge on mechanisms governing the ordered expression of the various members of superfamily of ankyrin repeat domain containing proteins may prove exceedingly useful for developing novel rational therapy for cardiac disease and muscle dystrophies.

Ankyrin and SOCS-box containing protein, Ankyrin repeat, Cell differentiation, Mechanical stress, Muscle metabolism, Notch receptor, Proteinprotein interaction, Transcriptional responses,
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Tee, J-M, & Peppelenbosch, M.P. (2010). Anchoring skeletal muscle development and disease: The role of ankyrin repeat domain containing proteins in muscle physiology. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Vol. 45, pp. 318–330). doi:10.3109/10409238.2010.488217