The objective of this study was to determine whether screening for prostate cancer (PC) reduces PC mortality and, if so, whether the required criteria to be introduced as a population-based screening program are satisfied. A literature review was conducted through electronic scientific databases. The screening tests, that is, PSA and digital rectal examination, have limited sensitivity and specificity for detecting PC; screening produces a beneficial stage shift and reduces PC mortality. Nevertheless, PC screening causes a large increase in the cumulative incidence, and the understanding of the economic cost and quality-of-life parameters are limited. PC screening cannot be justified yet in the context of a public health policy.

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Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van Leeuwen, P.J, van Vugt, H.A, & Bangma, C.H. (2010). The implementation of screening for prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (Vol. 13, pp. 218–227). doi:10.1038/pcan.2010.14