In well developed countries, injury is the leading cause of death and disability among young adults. In less developed countries the incidence of injury is high and rapidly increasing, but the relative mortality due to injuries is overshadowed by other causes, such as infections and malnutrition. In the United States of America each year approximately 1.000.000 people are treated and released from hospital emergency departments because of head injury. About 80% of patients receiving medical attention can be categorised as mild (Glasgow Coma Score = GCS 14-15), 10% as moderate (GCS 9-13), and 10% as severe (GCS 3-8). According to the Centre of Disease Control in 1996 95 patients per 100.000 inhabitants required hospitalisation, or died because of head injury. Leading causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the USA are violence (self inflicted and assault, 44% fire arms), vehicle crashes (34%), falls (9%), and other miscellaneous causes (14%). In Europe the majority of external causes of traumatic brain injury is related to road traffic accidents and accidental falls.

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A. Marmarou (Anthony) , C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
National Institute of Health, National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, Stichting Neurochirurgie, Sophia Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Stichting Het Remmert Adriaan Laan Fonds, Promedics, Divisies Cadman en DuPuy AcroMed van Johnson & Johnson Medical, Bayer, Carl Zeiss, Stoppler
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van den Brink, W.A. (2000, June 14). Head Injury, from Men to Model. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from