The implementation of genetic data for a better prediction of response to medications and adverse drug reactions is becoming a reality in some clinical fields. However, to be successful, personalized medicine should take advantage of an informational structured framework of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in order to provide the healthcare system with useful tools that can optimize the effectiveness of specific treatment. The impact of personalized medicine is potentially enormous, but the results that have so far been gathered are often difficult to translate into clinical practice. In this article we have summarized the most relevant applications of pharmacogenomics on diseases to which they have already been applied and fields in which they are currently emerging. The article provides an overview of the opportunities and shortcomings of the implementation of genetic information into personalized medicine and its full adoption in the clinic. In the second instance, it provides readers from different fields of expertise with an accessible interpretation to the barriers and opportunities in the use/adoption of pharmacogenomic testing between the different clinical areas.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Squassini, A., Manchia, M., Manolopoulos, V., Artac, M., Lappa-Manakou, C., Karkabouna, S., … Patrinos, G. (2010). Realities and expectations of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: Impact of translating genetic knowledge into clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics (Vol. 11, pp. 1149–1167). doi:10.2217/pgs.10.97