Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a mortality rate of 10-35% in live-born infants. Moreover, CDH survivors have a substantial risk of developing long-term pulmonary sequelae, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Objectives: This study aims to evaluate risk factors associated with BPD and mortality in neonates with CDH, with particular focus on the initial ventilation mode. Methods: Eligible for inclusion were live-born infants with CDH born from 2001 through 2006 at the centers participating in the CDH Study Group. BPD (defined as oxygen dependency at day 30) and/or mortality by day 30 served as the primary endpoint. Results: A total of 2,078 neonates were included in the analysis. At day 30, 56% of the patients had either died or met the criteria for BPD. In infants who survived until day 30, the prevalence of BPD was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 31%. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation as initial ventilation mode, a right-sided defect, a prenatal diagnosis, a lower Apgar score at 5 min, a cardiac anomaly, a chromosomal anomaly and a lower gestational age were all associated with BPD and/or mortality by day 30. Conclusions: Despite improvements in neonatal care, the rates of BPD and early mortality in newborns with CDH are still considerable. Several important risk factors for a worse outcome are reported in this nonrandomized prospective observational study.

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Journal Neonatology: fetal and neonatal research
de Jongste-van den Hout, L, Reiss, I.K.M, Felix, J.F, Hop, W.C.J, Lally, P.A, & Tibboel, D. (2010). Risk Factors for Chronic Lung Disease and Mortality in Newborns with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Neonatology: fetal and neonatal research, 98(4), 370–380. doi:10.1159/000316974