A central feature of Palestinian politics in the nineties, and specifi cally after the signing of the Oslo agreement in 1993, was that while many Palestinians were enthusiastically debating laws and challenging their newly established government on the basis of equality, they were aware that the framework within which their new reality was constructed was an agreement which deprived them of their fundamental right to self-determination and independence. The Oslo Accords sustained Palestinian inequality with Israel; in fact, by virtue of being signed by Palestinian representatives and approved by the international community, they amounted to a written surrender to the state of Israel.