In this study, we assess the effects of electrode placement error on the EASI-derived 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). The study data set consisted of 744 body surface potential map (BSPM) recordings. The BSPMs, each of which was made up of 117 leads, were recorded from a mixture of healthy, myocardial infarction, and left ventricular hypertrophy subjects. The BSPMs were interpolated to increase the number of data points in the region of the EASI recording electrodes I, E, and A and the precordial leads. This facilitated 3 experiments. Firstly, recording sites I, E, and A were simultaneously moved ±5 cm vertically, in 0.5 cm increments, from their correct locations. Secondly, recording sites I and A were moved horizontally, again up to ±5 cm, in 0.5 cm increments. Finally, all 6 precordial leads were moved vertically in 0.5 cm increments up to ±5 cm. At each movement step, the resulting 12-lead ECG was compared with the original 12-lead ECG. Root mean square error was determined along with the absolute difference in J-point amplitude. Although the EASI leads were found to be less sensitive to electrode misplacement than the standard precordial leads, it was found that when precordial leads were moved up to ±3 cm vertically, the resulting 12-lead ECG more accurately resembled the original 12-lead ECG than a 12-lead ECG reconstructed from accurately positioned EASI leads. Further work is required to establish the effects of electrode misplacement beyond the ±5 cm limits assessed in this study.,
Journal of Electrocardiology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Finlay, D.D, Nugent, C.D, Nelwan, S.P, Bond, R.R, Donnelly, M.P, & Guldenring, D. (2010). Effects of electrode placement errors in the EASI-derived 12-lead electrocardiogram. In Journal of Electrocardiology (Vol. 43, pp. 606–611). doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.07.004