The term liberal peace is employed to explain the absence of fatal conflict between democratic nations that are also economically interdependent. The expression, therefore, has an economic dimension, as well as an element based on a common polity and sets of values. I sketch the ideal and realist versions of the liberal peace theory as they may be applied to the contemporary developing world. I address how globalization may affect the incidence of internal conflict in developing countries. Policies promoting globalization may be conflict enhancing, even if highly open economies are found to be less conflict prone. This may be because the road to prosperity may first increase the incidence of violence before a steady-state associated with a high income level and peace is achieved. This requires careful management of policies such that growth is broad-based and policies promoting greater openness are sufficiently cushioned to protect losers. Moreover, the process of democratisation may raise the risk of conflict unless suitable checks and balances on executive power are in place.