This article examines bi-regional governance between the European Union and Latin American and Caribbean countries as a source of social resistance and contestation. The analysis focuses on the contributions of a bottom-up and informal mechanism of litigation, the Permanent People’s Tribunals against European Multinationals and Neoliberalism, to cognitive justice and as a challenge to the notion of neoliberal governance. It questions the underlying assumptions regarding global/regional governance and resistance in the literature on international relations and international political economy, and the type of development and regionalism promoted by EU institutions and governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article calls for a problematisation of the resistance that is mobilised through the Tribunals, which is not free of tensions but, nonetheless, contributes through practices of cognitive justice to unveiling the fragmented, and hence, contested, nature of EU neoliberal governance for Latin America and the Caribbean countries.