Skepticism and disappointment have replaced the initial enthusiasm about CRM. The disappointing results of CRM-projects are often related to difficulties that managers encounter in embedding CRM in their strategy and organization structure. In this article we present a classification scheme on how CRM can be strategically embedded in organizations using the value disciplines of Treacy and Wiersema. We use the findings from three case studies to illustrate our classification. Based on these case studies and interviews with managers we distinguish between strategic and tactical CRM, and derive important issues that managers should consider before successfully implementing CRM.

customer relationship management, marketing performance, marketing strategy
Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research (jel C44), Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting (jel M), Marketing (jel M31)
Erasmus Research Institute of Management
ERIM Report Series Research in Management
Copyright 2002, P.C. Verhoef, F. Langerak, This report in the ERIM Report Series Research in Management is intended as a means to communicate the results of recent research to academic colleagues and other interested parties. All reports are considered as preliminary and subject to possibly major revisions. This applies equally to opinions expressed, theories developed, and data used. Therefore, comments and suggestions are welcome and should be directed to the authors.
Erasmus Research Institute of Management

Verhoef, P.C, & Langerak, F. (2002). Further Thoughts on CRM (No. ERS-2002-83-MKT). ERIM Report Series Research in Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from