Sequencing unit load retrieval requests has been studied extensively in literature for conventional single-deep automated warehousing systems. A proper sequence can greatly reduce the makespan when carrying out a group of such requests. Although the sequencing problem is NP-hard some very good heuristics exist. Surprisingly the problem has not yet been investigated for compact (multi-deep) storage systems, which have greatly increased in popularity the last decade. This paper studies how to sequence a group (or block) of storage and retrieval requests in a multi-deep automated storage system with the objective to minimize the makespan. We adapt well-known sequencing heuristics for the multi-deep system, and propose and evaluate a new heuristic: percentage priority to retrievals with shortest leg (PPR-SL). Our results show the PPR-SL heuristic consistently outperforms all the other heuristics. Generally, it can outperform the benchmark first-come first-served (FCFS) heuristic by 20-70%. The nearest neighbor (NN) heuristic that performs very well in conventional single-deep storage systems, appears to perform poorly in the multi-deep system; even worse than FCFS. In addition, based on FCFS and PPR-SL, we find robust rack dimensions yielding a short makespan, regardless of the number of storage and retrieval requests.

Additional Metadata
Keywords AS/RS, TSP, compact storage, logistics, sequencing, warehouse
JEL Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting (jel M), Production Management (jel M11), Transportation Systems (jel R4)
Publisher Erasmus Research Institute of Management
Persistent URL
Series ERIM Report Series Research in Management
Journal ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management
Yu, Y, & de Koster, M.B.M. (2011). Sequencing Heuristics for Storing and Retrieving Unit Loads in 3D Compact Automated Warehousing Systems (No. ERS-2011-003-LIS). ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from