Influenza viruses are very small pathogens (typically 80-120 nm) belonging to the family of the Orthomyxoviridae together with four other genera: Thogoto virus, Isavirus and influenza B and C viruses. The influenza viruses are distinguished based on the membrane channel protein, genome size and surface glycoproteins. The influenza A viruses are further subdivided into subtypes based on the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). At present, 16 subtypes of the HA and 9 subtypes of the NA are known.

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EU,ViroClinics Biosciences B.V.,Sanquin bloedvoorziening Unit Reagentia
G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Bodewes, R. (2011, March 18). Immunity to Influenza and Future Vaccination Strategies. Retrieved from