Similarities in cardiac gene expression in hypothyroidism and left ventricular (LV) pathological remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) suggest a role for impaired cardiac thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the development of heart failure. Increased ventricular activity of the TH-degrading enzyme type 3 deiodinase (D3) is recognized as a potential cause. In the present study, we investigated the cardiac expression and activity of D3 over an 8-wk period after MI in C57Bl/6J mice. Pathological remodeling of the noninfarcted part of the LV was evident from cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and impairment of contractility. These changes were maximal and stable from the first week onward, as was the degree of LV dilation. A strong induction of D3 activity was found, which was similarly stable for the period examined. Plasma T4 levels were transiently decreased at 1 wk after MI, but T3 levels remained normal. The high D3 activity was associated with increased D3 mRNA expression at 1 but not at 4 and 8 wk after MI. Immunohistochemistry localized D3 protein to cardiomyocytes. In vivo measurement of TH-dependent transcription activity in cardiomyocytes using a luciferase reporter assay indicated a 48% decrease in post-MI mice relative to sham-operated animals, and this was associated with a 50% decrease in LVtissue T3 concentration. In conclusion, pathological ventricular remodeling after MI in themouse leads to high and stable induction of D3 activity in cardiomyocytes and a local hypothyroid condition.,
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Pol, C.J, Müller, A, Zuidwijk, M.J, van Deel, E.D, Kaptein, E, Saba, A, … Simonides, W.S. (2011). Left-ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction is associated with a cardiomyocyte-specific hypothyroid condition. Endocrinology, 152(2), 669–679. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0431