[Introduction] The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is among the most dose-intensive approaches in clinical oncology and involves variable therapeutic options with highly diverse consequences in terms of toxicities and anti-leukemic effects. One illustrative example is the choice between consolidation chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in first remission and also the choice among highly diverse types of stem cell transplantation such as autologous, allogeneic-sibling, haplo-identical, unrelated donor or umbilical cord blood grafting.