Scientific and technological innovations have provided valuable inputs to improve human development over the past 200 years. However, uneven development stemming from the effects of the resource intensive, linear economic growth model and the related changing lifestyles continuously aggravate human pressures on the limited environmental/ecological space available for the survival of all living beings on the planet earth. On the one hand, the earth is under tremendous pressure due to the resource intensive infrastructure developed especially during the period since the industrial revolution by the industrialised countries for their development and the related changing lifestyles. On the other hand the current and emerging demands from the developing countries to improve their standard of living create unprecedented challenges to the limited resource base available for all living beings for their existence. In light of globalisation, no country will be able to address the present multiple global challenges in isolation. The application of Cleaner production (CP)/Sustainable Production and Consumption (SPC) strategies at the local, regional and global level has become imperative to guide and help societies to achieve sustainable human development. Achieving such development needs collaboration between and among developed and developing countries and timely action together.

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W.A. Hafkamp (Wim)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Department of Public Administration

Batuwitage, L.P. (2011, July). A Sustainable Production and Consumption Model for Sri Lanka: developing country perspective in relation to glabal change. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from