The Antioxidant Protein Peroxiredoxin 4 Is Epigenetically Down Regulated in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
PLoS ONE , Volume 6 - Issue 1
The antioxidant peroxiredoxin (PRDX) protein family comprises 6 members, which are implicated in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor signal transduction. PRDX4 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it locally controls oxidative stress by reducing H2O2levels. We recently provided evidence for a regulatory function of PRDX4 in signal transduction from a myeloid growth factor receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR). Upon activation, the ligand-induced G-CSFR undergoes endocytosis and routes via the early endosomes where it physically interacts with ER-resident PRDX4. PRDX4 negatively regulates G-CSFR mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether PRDX4 is affected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); genomic alterations and expression levels of PRDX4 were investigated. We show that genomic abnormalities involving PRDX4 are rare in AML. However, we find a strong reduction in PRDX4 expression levels in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared to normal promyelocytes and different molecular subtypes of AML. Subsequently, the possible role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in silencing of PRDX4 in APLs was investigated. We show that the reduced expression is not due to methylation of the CpG island in the promoter region of PRDX4 but correlates with increased trimethylation of histone 3 lysine residue 27 (H3K27me3) and lysine residue 4 (H3K4me3) at the transcriptional start site (TSS) of PRDX4, indicative of a bivalent histone code involved in transcriptional silencing. These findings suggest that the control of G-CSF responses by the antioxidant protein PRDX4 may be perturbed in APL.