In a previous study [van Kampen et al. Analytical Chemistry 2006; 78: 5403], we found that meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (F20TPP), in combination with lithium salts, provides an efficient matrix to cationize small molecules by Li+attachment and that this combination can be successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of drugs, such as antiretroviral compounds using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in conjunction with a time-of-flight analyzer (MALDI-TOF). In the present study, we further explore the mechanism of metal ion attachment to F20TPP and analytes by MALDI-FTMS(/MS). To this end, we have studied the interaction of F20TPP and analyteswith various mono-, di- and trivalentmetal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+and Ga3+). For the alkali cations, we find that F20TPP forms complexes only with Li+and Na+; in addition, model analyte molecules such as poly(ethyleneglycol)s, mixed with F20TPP and the alkali cations, also only form Li+and Na+adducts. This contrasts sharply with the commonly used matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, where analytes aremost efficiently cationized by Na+or K+. Reasons for this difference are delineated. Ab initio calculations on porphyrin itself reveal that even the smallest alkali cation, Li+, does not fit in the porphyrin cavity, but lies on top of it, pushing the 21H and 23 H hydrogen atoms out of and below the plane with concomitant bending of the porphyrin skeleton in the opposite direction, i.e. toward the cation. Thus, the Li+ion is not effectively sequestered and is in fact exposed and thus accessible for donation to analyte molecules. Interaction of F20TPP with di- and trivalent metal ions leads to protoporphyrin-metal ions, where the metal ion is captured within the protoporphyrin dianion cavity. The most intense signal is obtained when F20TPP is reacted with CuCl2and then subjected to laser ablation. This method presents an easy general route to study the metal containing protoporphyrin molecules, which could all act as potential MALDI matrices. Copyright

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Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van Kampen, J., Luider, T., Ruttink, P., & Burgers, P. (2009). Metal ion attachment to thematrix meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin, relatedmatrices and analytes: An experimental and theoretical study. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 44(11), 1556–1564. doi:10.1002/jms.1601