Despite recent advances, the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is still poor. Therapeutic options such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and the novel treatment option gene therapy are being investigated in animal models. Diverse models have been studied to induce oral squamous cell carcinomas. The carcinogenic 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) model has proven to be successful although until now it is unknown at what time point the established tumor is a representative squamous cell carcinoma and has a suitable volume for scientific treatment. For this end we applied 4NQO 3 times a week during 16 weeks and measured the volume of tumor tissue each week until the end of the experiment at 40 weeks. Concurrent histopathology at different time points up to the end of the experiment revealed that all mice bearing oral tumors were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry with markers cyclin D1 and E-cadherin revealed that the generated mouse oral tumors showed strong similarities with the described immunopathology in human oral tumors. The 4NQO model is a suitable alternative for preclinical gene therapy experiments with primary oral tumors. Future survey of therapeutic options in the carcinogenic 4NQO model should be conducted around 40 weeks after the start of the treatment.

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide, Gene therapy, Immunocompetent mice, Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, Tumor volume,
Journal of Molecular Histology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Schoop, R.A.L, Noteborn, M.H.M, & Baatenburg de Jong, R.J. (2009). A mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Molecular Histology, 40(3), 177–181. doi:10.1007/s10735-009-9228-z