The β-globin gene dominant control region interacts differently with distal and proximal promoter elements.
We have studied the interaction between the dominant control region (DCR) and the promoter of the human beta-globin gene. Expression analysis in MEL cells has revealed that the DCR contains a number of elements capable of replacing the upstream (-250 to -100) erythroid-specific region of the promoter. The DCR strongly stimulates expression from a promoter possessing only a TATA box. However, this basic level of transcription is not induced upon erythroid differentiation of the cells. Mutational analysis of the minimal (-100, noninducible) promoter shows that only the combination of the DCR and the CAC/CCAAT elements provides erythroid-specific transcription. These regions act synergistically to produce full regulated expression during erythroid differentiation.