Two Indian migrant workers suffering from fever and malaise were admitted to the hospital directly after arrival in the Netherlands. The first patient was 25-year-old man who had fever and rigors on admission. The patient was treated for presumptive typhoid fever with ciprofloxacin. Cefotaxime was added the following day because of the possibility of a nalidixic-acid resistant strain of S. typhi. The clinical course was complicated by a small bowel perforation on the third day of the disease. Blood cultures grew a nalidixic acid resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. The patient recovered completely. The second patient, a 22-year-old man, suffered from fever, malaise and hearing loss. A sensorineural hearing loss with vestibular dysfunction was diagnosed. Cultures of blood and bone marrow aspirate showed a nalidixic acid resistant strain of S. typhi. Treatment with ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime improved the hearing loss significantly. The clinical features of typhoid fever are heterogeneous and rare complications may occur. The emergence of multidrug and nalidixic acid resistance may complicate further the treatment of this serious systemic infection.

Cochleovestibular impairment, Nalidixic acid resistance, Salmonella enterica serovar typhi, Small bowel perforation, Typhoid fever,
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van Wolfswinkel, M.E, Lahri, H, Wismans, P.J, Petit, P.L.C, & van Genderen, P.J.J. (2009). Early small bowel perforation and cochleovestibular impairment as rare complications of typhoid fever. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7(5), 265–268. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2009.06.003