Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) provides for enteral nutrition in children with feeding problems. PEG, however, is not without complications. The present study has a twofold aim: (1) comparing our incidence of major complications after PEG with the incidence in other centers, and (2) identifying risk factors for major complications. All patients receiving a PEG or laparoscopic-assisted PEG (lap PEG) in the period 1992-2008 were reviewed. Primary outcome was the occurrence of major complications, defined as the need for surgery, nonprophylactic antibiotics, or blood transfusion, and procedure-related death. Potential risk factors, eg, age under 1 year, mental retardation, scoliosis, constipation, hepatomegaly, upper abdominal surgery, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, peritoneal dialysis, esophageal stenosis, and coagulopathy, were analyzed. Of the 467 patients (448 PEG, 19 lap PEG), 12.6% developed major complications. The complication rate significantly decreased (P = 0.003) over the years. A significantly higher complication rate of 32% (P = 0.02) occurred in children with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. None of the lap PEG procedures was associated with a major complication, but the difference was not significant, perhaps because of the small numbers in the latter group. The major complication rate after PEG in children is high. Preexisting ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a significant risk factor. Laparoscopically assisted PEG procedures seem to be associated with a lesser major complication rate.

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Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Vervloessem, D, van Leersum, F, Boer, D, Hop, W.C.J, Escher, J.C, Madern, G.C, … Bax, N.M.A. (2009). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in children is not a minor procedure: risk factors for major complications. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 18(2), 93–97. doi:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2009.02.006