Invasive fungal infections are a major problem in patients treated for hematologic malignancies. We report a 3-year-old girl who suffered from febrile neutropenia during induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Initial chest computed tomography revealed no evidence of intrapulmonary fungal lesions, however, plasma galactomannan ratio was positive. Aspergillus flavus was cultured from nasal swab and endoscopic biopsy confirmed Aspergillus rhinosinusitis. After an initially good response to voriconazole and extensive debridement, she developed late intracranial hemorrhage and infarction with fatal outcome. This case stresses the importance of early suspicion and aggressive treatment of Aspergillus rhinosinusitis in patients with febrile neutropenia.

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Journal of Pediatric Hematology / Oncology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Vlaardingerbroek, H., van der Flier, M., Borgstein, J., Leguin, M., & van der Sluis, I. (2009). Fatal aspergillus rhinosinusitis during induction chemotherapy in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of Pediatric Hematology / Oncology, 31(5), 367–369. doi:10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181983c71