Context We previously reported that short, small for gestational age (SGA) children who were born preterm have a lower body fat percentage and a higher blood pressure, insulin secretion and disposition index than short SGA children born at term. Whether preterm birth also influences these parameters during GH treatment is unknown. Objective To compare blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and body composition during 4 years of GH treatment, between preterm and term short SGA children. Patients A total of 404 prepubertal non-GH-deficient short SGA children were divided into 143 preterm (< 36 weeks) and 261 term children. Outcome measures Height, blood pressure (n = 404), body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n = 138) and insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function calculated from a frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) with tolbutamide (n = 74) or from the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (n = 204). Results In preterm and term children, GH treatment resulted in a similar decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body fat percentage, limb fat/total fat ratio and insulin sensitivity, and a similar increase in insulin secretion and disposition index. Lean body mass (LBM) corrected for gender and height increased in term children and did not change in preterm children. Multiple regression analysis revealed that this difference in GH effect on LBM was not associated with gestational age. Conclusion The effect of GH treatment on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is similar in preterm and term short, SGA children.,
Clinical Endocrinology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Kort, S.W.K, Willemsen, R.H, van der Kaay, D.C.M, & Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S. (2009). The effect of growth hormone treatment on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is similar in preterm and term short, small for gestational age children. Clinical Endocrinology, 71(1), 65–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03504.x