Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of surgical resection and permanent iodine-125 brachytherapy without adjuvant whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases. Methods and materials: Forty patients were treated with permanent iodine-125 brachytherapy at the time of resection of brain metastases from 1997 to 2003. Actuarial freedom from progression (FFP) and survival were measured from the date of surgery and estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with censoring at last imaging for FFP endpoints. Results: The median survival was 11.3 months overall, 12.0 months in 19 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases and 7.3 months in 21 patients with recurrent brain metastases. Twenty-two patients (55%) remained free of progression of brain metastases, three failed at the resection cavity (including one with leptomeningeal dissemination), two failed with leptomeningeal spread only, and 13 failed elsewhere in the brain including two who also had leptomeningeal disease. The 1-year resection cavity FFP probabilities were 92%, 86% and 88%; and brain FFP probabilities were 29%, 43% and 37% for the newly diagnosed, recurrent and all patients, respectively. Symptomatic necrosis developed 7.4-40.0 months (median, 19.5 months) after brachytherapy in 9 patients (23%), confirmed by resection in 6 patients. Conclusions: Excellent local control was achieved using permanent iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain metastasis resection cavities, although there is a high risk of radiation necrosis over time. These data support consideration of permanent brachytherapy without adjuvant WBRT as a treatment option in patients with symptomatic or large newly diagnosed or recurrent brain metastases.

Brachytherapy, Brain metastasis, Brain neoplasms, Iodine-125
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-008-9686-2, hdl.handle.net/1765/25023
Journal of Neuro-Oncology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Huang, K, Sneed, P.K, Kunwar, S, Kragten, A, Larson, D.A, Berger, M.S, … Mcdermott, M.W. (2009). Surgical resection and permanent iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain metastases. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 91(1), 83–93. doi:10.1007/s11060-008-9686-2