Patients with an impending myocardial infarction may be preconditioned by pre-infarct angina. Hence, it is important to establish whether ischemic postconditioning is still effective in preconditioned hearts. We therefore studied in anesthetized rats the effect of postconditioning after coronary artery occlusions (CAO) of 60 min in control hearts, hearts preconditioned by a single 15-min CAO (1IPC15) or a triple 3-min CAO (3IPC3). Furthermore, we studied the effect of postconditioning in hearts that had been pharmacologically preconditioned with intravenous adenosine and in hearts that had become tolerant to 1IPC15. Postconditioning limited infarct size in control hearts, but did not afford additional protection in preconditioned hearts, irrespective of the IPC stimulus. NO synthase inhibition abolished the cardioprotection by postconditioning, both IPC stimuli, and the combination of postconditioning and either IPC stimulus. Postconditioning also failed to afford cardioprotection in hearts protected by adenosine, and in hearts that had become tolerant to cardioprotection by 1IPC15. In accordance with previous observations, postconditioning paradoxically increased infarct size following a 30-min CAO. This detrimental effect was prevented by either IPC stimulus, in a NO synthase-dependent manner. In conclusion, postconditioning does not afford additional protection in preconditioned hearts, irrespective of the preconditioning stimulus and the presence of tolerance to preconditioning. Lack of additional protection may be related to the observation that postconditioning and preconditioning are both mediated via NO synthase. In contrast, the increase in infarct size by postconditioning following a 30-min CAO is abolished by either IPC stimulus. These findings indicate that the interaction between preconditioning and postconditioning is highly dependent on the duration of index ischemia, but independent of the preconditioning stimulus. Copyright

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Keywords Adenosine, Myocardial infarction, Nitric oxide, Postconditioning, Preconditioning
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Journal Experimental Biology and Medicine
Manintveld, O.C, te Lintel Hekkert, M, van der Ploeg, N.T, Verdouw, P.D, & Duncker, D.J.G.M. (2009). Interaction between pre- and postconditioning in the in vivo rat heart. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 234(11), 1345–1354. doi:10.3181/0903-RM-121