Transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary system and the fifth most common cancer in Western countries with more than 300,000 new cases per year worldwide. Following the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, median overall survival in patients with metastatic disease has doubled, demonstrating chemotherapy as an important treatment modality in advanced or metastatic disease. Patients 'unfit' to receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy are characterized by impaired renal function, impaired performance status, and/or comorbidity that preclude the use of cisplatin. In this review we summarize the different chemotherapeutic schemes, focusing on treatment options in cisplatin 'unfit' patients.

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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam