Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and investigated if the success rate of dendritic cell immunotherapy could be improved. For this, mesothelioma tumor-bearing mice were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose of cyclophosphamide. Proportions of regulatory T cells and the cytotoxic T cell functions at different stages of disease were analyzed. We found that low-dose cyclophosphamide induced beneficial immunomodulatory effects by preventing the induction of Tregs, and as a consequence, cytotoxic T cell function was no longer affected. Addition of cyclophosphamide improved immunotherapy leading to an increased median and overall survival. Future studies are needed to address the usefulness of this combination treatment for mesothelioma patients. Copyright

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Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Veltman, J.D, Lambers, M.E.H, van Nimwegen, M, de Jong, S.S, Hendriks, R.W, Hoogsteden, H.C, … Hegmans, J.P.J.J. (2010). Low-dose cyclophosphamide synergizes with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in antitumor activitys. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/798467