Autologous bone grafting is currently considered as the gold standard to restore bone defects. However, clinical benefit is not guaranteed and there is an associated 8-39% complication rate. This has resulted in the development of alternative (synthetic) bone substitutes. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide a comprehensive overview of literature data of bone substitutes registered in the Netherlands for use in trauma and orthopedic surgery. Brand names of selected products were used as search terms in three available databases: Embase, PubMed and Cochrane. Manuscripts written in English, German or Dutch that reported on structural, biological or biomechanical properties of the pure product or on its use in trauma and orthopedic surgery were included. The primary search resulted in 475 manuscripts from PubMed, 653 from Embase and 10 from Cochrane. Of these, 218 met the final inclusion criteria. Of each product, structural, biological and biomechanical characteristics as well as their clinical indications in trauma and orthopedic surgery are provided. All included products possess osteoconductive properties but differ in resorption time and biomechanical properties. They have been used for a wide range of clinical applications; however, the overall level of clinical evidence is low. The requirements of an optimal bone substitute are related to the size and location of the defect. Calcium phosphate grafts have been used for most trauma and orthopedic surgery procedures. Calcium sulphates were mainly used to restore bone defects after tumour resection surgery but offer minimal structural support. Bioactive glass remains a potential alternative; however, its use has only been studied to a limited extent.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Biomaterials, Bone substitutes, Calcium phosphate, Calcium sulphate, Review
Persistent URL,
Series Surgery and Traumatology
Journal Acta Biomaterialia
van der Stok, J, van Lieshout, E.M.M, El-Massoudi, Y, van Kralingen, G.H, & Patka, P. (2011). Bone substitutes in the Netherlands - A systematic literature review. Acta Biomaterialia, 7(2), 739–750. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2010.07.035