Introduction: A large variety of therapeutic modalities for calcaneal fractures have been described in the literature. No single treatment modality for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures has proven superior over the other. This review describes and compares the different percutaneous distractional approaches for intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The history, technique, anatomical and fracture considerations, limitations and the results of different distractional approaches reported in the literature are reviewed. Method: Literature review on different percutaneous distractional approaches for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Results: Eight studies in which application of a distraction technique was used for the treatment of calcaneal fractures were identified. Because of the use of different classification, techniques, and outcome scoring systems, a meta-analysis was not possible. A literature review reveals overall fair to poor result in 10-29% of patients. Ten up to 26% of patients are unable to return to work after percutaneous treatment of their fracture. A secondary arthrodesis has to be performed in 2-15% of the cases. Infectious complications occur in 2-15%. Some loss of reduction is reported in 4-67%. Conclusion: Percutaneous distractional reduction and fixation appears to be a safe technique with overall good results and an acceptable complication rate, compared with other treatment modalities for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. A meta-analysis, based on Cochrane Library criteria is not possible, because of a lack of level 1 and 2 trials on this subject.

Calcaneus, Fracture, Minimal invasive, Percutaneous,
Surgery and Traumatology
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Department of Surgery

Schepers, T, & Patka, P. (2009). Treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures by ligamentotaxis: Current concepts' review. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery (Vol. 129, pp. 1677–1683). doi:10.1007/s00402-009-0915-8