The justification for clinical cardiac transplantation is that it should solve end-stage cardiac disease when no other medical or surgical treatment is available (76). However, after cardiac transplantation the main barriers to long-term survival and complete rehabilitation include the management of acute rejection episodes, the complications related to the immunosuppressive therapy and the progression of graft arteriosclerosis or chronic rejection (77). Although a progressive increase in patient survival has become apparent (77), many aspects of the process of acute and chronic cardiac allograft rejection have yet to be studied.

, ,
E. Bos (Egbert)
Hippocrates Studiefonds, Netherlands Heart Foundation
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Penn, O. C. K. M. (1979, April 18). Chronic rejection in DLA identical dogs after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Retrieved from