The justification for clinical cardiac transplantation is that it should solve end-stage cardiac disease when no other medical or surgical treatment is available (76). However, after cardiac transplantation the main barriers to long-term survival and complete rehabilitation include the management of acute rejection episodes, the complications related to the immunosuppressive therapy and the progression of graft arteriosclerosis or chronic rejection (77). Although a progressive increase in patient survival has become apparent (77), many aspects of the process of acute and chronic cardiac allograft rejection have yet to be studied.

cardiology, heart transplantation, rejection
E. Bos (Egbert)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Hippocrates Studiefonds, Netherlands Heart Foundation
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Penn, O.C.K.M. (1979, April 18). Chronic rejection in DLA identical dogs after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from