The literature on selection of interface formats is fragmented and does not provide an overall framework in which all relevant factors are included. Current frameworks are incomplete and focus on a subset of the total set of factors. In this paper we develop a more complete overview of factors based on the available literature. First, we perform an extensive literature study of 127 publications, resulting in 29 factors for format dominance. Second, we group the factors into five categories: characteristics of the format supporter, characteristics of the format, format support strategy, other stakeholders, and market characteristics. Third, we perform a meta-analysis and we specify the direction of each factor on format dominance. This results in a framework that facilitates assessing the chances that an interface format achieves dominance. We demonstrate that this framework is more complete than previous frameworks. The framework can be used by both researchers and practitioners to understand historical and current format battles as well as acceptance of formats without direct competitors.

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Keywords Dominant design, Interface format, Standards battles, Technology battles, Technology selection
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Series ERIM Article Series (EAS)
Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change
van de Kaa, G, van den Ende, J.C.M, de Vries, H.J, & van Heck, H.W.G.M. (2011). Factors for winning interface format battles: A review and synthesis of the literature. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(8), 1397–1411. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2011.03.011