A Direct Monte Carlo (DMC) approach is introduced for posterior simulation in the Instrumental Variables (IV) model with one possibly endogenous regressor, multiple instruments and Gaussian errors under a flat prior. This DMC method can also be applied in an IV model (with one or multiple instruments) under an informative prior for the endogenous regressor's effect. This DMC approach can not be applied to more complex IV models or Simultaneous Equations Models with multiple endogenous regressors. An Approximate DMC (ADMC) approach is introduced that makes use of the proposed Hybrid Mixture Sampling (HMS) method, which facilitates Metropolis-Hastings (MH) or Importance Sampling from a proper marginal posterior density with highly non-elliptical shapes that tend to infinity for a point of singularity. After one has simulated from the irregularly shaped marginal distri- bution using the HMS method, one easily samples the other parameters from their conditional Student-t and Inverse-Wishart posteriors. An example illustrates the close approximation and high MH acceptance rate. While using a simple candidate distribution such as the Student-t may lead to an infinite variance of Importance Sampling weights. The choice between the IV model and a simple linear model un- der the restriction of exogeneity may be based on predictive likelihoods, for which the efficient simulation of all model parameters may be quite useful. In future work the ADMC approach may be extended to more extensive IV models such as IV with non-Gaussian errors, panel IV, or probit/logit IV.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Bayesian estimation, Direct Monte Carlo, errors in variables, hybrid mixture sampling, instrumental viariables, simultaneous equations model
JEL Bayesian Analysis (jel C11), Simulation Methods; Monte Carlo Methods; Bootstrap Methods (jel C15), Econometric Methods: Multiple/Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables: General (jel C30)
Publisher Tinbergen Institute
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/26507
Series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper Series
Journal Discussion paper / Tinbergen Institute
Zellner, A, Ando, T, Basturk, N, Hoogerheide, L.F, & van Dijk, H.K. (2011). Instrumental Variables, Errors in Variables, and Simultaneous Equations Models: Applicability and Limitations of Direct Monte Carlo (No. TI 2011-137/4). Discussion paper / Tinbergen Institute (pp. 1–38). Tinbergen Institute. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/26507