Introduction: Microcirculatory abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with severe heart failure and correlate to worse outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that nitroglycerin dose-dependently improves perfusion in severe heart failure and that this could be monitored by measuring central-peripheral temperature gradient and with Sidestream Dark Field imaging of the sublingual mucosa. Methods: A dose-response study was performed in 17 patients with cardiogenic shock (n = 9) or end-stage chronic heart failure (n = 8) admitted to Erasmus University Medical Center. We did hemodynamic measurements at baseline and during increasing infusion rates of nitroglycerin (up to a maximum dose of 133 μg min-1). As parameters of tissue perfusion, we measured central-peripheral temperature gradient (delta-T) and sublingual perfused capillary density (PCD). Results: Nitroglycerin dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure (p < 0.001) and cardiac filling pressures (both central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: p < 0.001). It increased cardiac index (p = 0.01). Nitroglycerin decreased delta-T (p < 0.001) and increased sublingual PCD (p < 0.001). Significant changes in delta-T and PCD occurred earlier, i.e., at a lower doses of NTG, than changes in global hemodynamics. Macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to nitroglycerin infusion were consistent in patients with either cardiogenic shock or end-stage chronic heart failure. Changes in microcirculatory parameters occurred independently of changes in cardiac index. Conclusions: Nitroglycerin dose-dependently increases tissue perfusion in patients with severe heart failure, as observed by a decrease in central-peripheral temperature gradient and an increase in sublingual perfused capillary density.

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Keywords Cardiogenic shock, Cardiovascular monitoring, Heart failure, Imaging, Microcirculation, Multiple organ failure, Nitroglycerin, Oxygen consumption and delivery, Perfusion, Perfusion imaging, Pharmacology, Shock: clinical studies
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Journal Intensive Care Medicine
den Uil, C.A, Caliskan, K, Lagrand, W.K, van der Ent, M, Jewbali, L.S.D, van Kuijk, J-P, … Simoons, M.L. (2009). Dose-dependent benefit of nitroglycerin on microcirculation of patients with severe heart failure. Intensive Care Medicine, 35(11), 1893–1899. doi:10.1007/s00134-009-1591-4