Inhibition of angiogenesis with humanized monoclonal antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting VEGF receptors has become an established treatment for various tumor types. Contrary to expectations, angiogenesis inhibition by blocking VEGF-mediated signaling is associated with serious side effects including hypertension and renal and cardiac toxicity in a substantial proportion of patients. Fortunately, most of these side effects as discussed in this paper seem to be manageable, but likely become more problematic when survival increases. Although several hypotheses regarding the etiology of angiogenesis inhibition-related cardiovascular and renal side effects have been postulated, many of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This may lead to the development of more specific angiogenesis inhibitors, better management of their side effects and may potentially provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in general.

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Keywords Angiogenesis inhibition, Cardiac disease, Hypertension, Proteinuria, Renal disease, Vvascular endothelial growth factor
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Journal Journal of Hypertension
Kappers, M.H.W, Esch, van, J.H.M, Sleijfer, S, Danser, A.H.J, & van den Meiracker, A.H. (2009). Cardiovascular and renal toxicity during angiogenesis inhibition: Clinical and mechanistic aspects. Journal of Hypertension (Vol. 27, pp. 2297–2309). doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283309b59