Three articles in this issue of Clinical Cancer Research show how multiple vaccinations can lead to immunosuppression. Moreover, two studies in patients show that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant immunostimulant to different kind of vaccines can lead to adverse outcome in terms of relapse-free and overall survival. Modulation of regulatory T-cell activity may be required to overcome this outcome and may be crucial for the successful development of therapeutic vaccines.

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Journal Clinical Cancer Research
Eggermont, A.M.M. (2009). Immunostimulation versus immunosuppression after multiple vaccinations: The woes of therapeutic vaccine development. Clinical Cancer Research (Vol. 15, pp. 6745–6747). doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2377