Our objective was to determine the gender differences in the relation between the echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic stable angina. The baseline ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume were assessed in 7,016 patients in the study "A Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcomes with Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system" (ACTION). All-cause and cardiac mortality and incident heart failure were determined after a median of 5.0 years. Cox proportional hazard models were fit to determine the effect of gender on the relation between the echocardiographic parameters and clinical outcomes (interaction p <0.10). The association between the EF and mortality differed significantly between men and women, with women demonstrating a marked increase in risk as the EF decreased, compared to men (interaction p = 0.03, adjusted p = 0.07). Also, a significant interaction by gender was seen for the association between the end-systolic volume and the risk of heart failure (interaction p = 0.01, adjusted p = 0.05). In conclusion, the relation between EF and mortality differed according to gender in patients with chronic coronary disease, with women having a greater risk of adverse outcomes as the EF decreased. Similar findings were observed with the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes and the risk of heart failure. These findings may reflect inherent gender-based differences in ischemic heart disease and cardiac remodeling and might help to identify women at high risk.

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.11.019, hdl.handle.net/1765/27355
The American Journal of Cardiology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Ky, B, Kirwan, B.A, de Brouwer, S, Lubsen, J, Poole-Wilson, P, Otterstad, J.E, … John, S.M.S. (2010). Gender Differences in Cardiac Remodeling and Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris (from the ACTION Trial). The American Journal of Cardiology, 105(7), 943–947. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.11.019