Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings
Allergy , Volume 65 - Issue 4 p. 445- 458
The present document is a consensus statement reached by a panel of experts on noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation of occupational respiratory diseases, such as occupational rhinitis, occupational asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Both the upper and the lower airway inflammation have been reviewed and appraised reinforcing the concept of 'united airway disease' in the occupational settings. The most widely used noninvasive methods to assess bronchial inflammation are covered: induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration, and exhaled breath condensate. Nasal inflammation may be assessed by noninvasive approaches such as nasal cytology and nasal lavage, which provide information on different aspects of inflammatory processes (cellular vs mediators). Key messages and suggestions on the use of noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation and diagnosis of occupational airway diseases are issued.